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Under the Antarctic Ice – Beauty of The Nature


I need a documentary to be of top quality if I want to see it through. This one reminds me of the human version of “The march of the penguins”.
The organisation and endurance for such an expedition is fascinating, the sea world in the diving sequences are mind boggling by its diversity, shapes and colors… a feast to the eye!
I hope you will have a refreshing fifty two minutes thirty seconds of pleasure in discovery… all from a comfortable armchair! Isn’t that perfection? 🙂

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Published on 25 Mar 2014
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The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth. It covers about 98% of the Antarctic continent and is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. It covers an area of almost 14 million square km and contains 26.5 million cubic km of ice.[2] That is, approximately 61 percent of all fresh water on the Earth is held in the Antarctic ice sheet, an amount equivalent to 70 m of water in the world’s oceans. In East Antarctica, the ice sheet rests on a major land mass, but in West Antarctica the bed can extend to more than 2,500 m below sea level. The land in this area would be seabed if the ice sheet were not there.

The icing of Antarctica began with ice-rafting from middle Eocene times about 45.5 million years ago[3] and escalated inland widely during the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago. CO2 levels were then about 760 ppm[4] and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. Carbon dioxide decrease, with a tipping point of 600 ppm, was the primary agent forcing Antarctic glaciation.[5] The glaciation was favored by an interval when the Earth’s orbit favored cool summers but Oxygen isotope ratio cycle marker changes were too large to be explained by Antarctic ice-sheet growth alone indicating an ice age of some size.[6] The opening of the Drake Passage may have played a role as well[7] though models of the changes suggest declining CO2 levels to have been more important.[8]

Ice enters the sheet through precipitation as snow. This snow is then compacted to form glacier ice which moves under gravity towards the coast. Most of it is carried to the coast by fast moving ice streams. The ice then passes into the ocean, often forming vast floating ice shelves. These shelves then melt or calve off to give icebergs that eventually melt.

If the transfer of the ice from the land to the sea is balanced by snow falling back on the land then there will be no net contribution to global sea levels. A 2002 analysis of NASA satellite data from 1979–1999 showed that while overall the land ice is decreasing, areas of Antarctica where sea ice was increasing outnumbered areas of decreasing sea ice roughly 2:1.[9] The general trend shows that a warming climate in the southern hemisphere would transport more moisture to Antarctica, causing the interior ice sheets to grow, while calving events along the coast will increase, causing these areas to shrink. A 2006 paper derived from satellite data, measures changes in the gravity of the ice mass, suggests that the total amount of ice in Antarctica has begun decreasing in the past few years.[10] Another recent study compared the ice leaving the ice sheet, by measuring the ice velocity and thickness along the coast, to the amount of snow accumulation over the continent. This found that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet was in balance but the West Antarctic Ice Sheet was losing mass. This was largely due to acceleration of ice streams such as Pine Island Glacier. These results agree closely with the gravity changes.[11][12] The estimate published in November 2012 and based on the GRACE data as well as on an improved glacial isostatic adjustment model indicates that an average yearly mass loss was 69 ± 18 Gt/y from 2002 to 2010. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet was approximately in balance while the East Antarctic Ice Sheet gained mass. The mass loss was mainly concentrated along the Amundsen Sea coast.[13]
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Education
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Dried fruit cake or muffins/multi-user-dough/Quick & easy/100% Natural & wholemeal if desired


©copyright2013owpp

©copyright2013owpp

Hi everyone!

I am this time, using my old computer as this file is still in it. Until I get used to my Window8 I hope you’ll bear with me. I feel as if I’m stagnating but in fact, I am learning everyday new functions.
It is a challenge. One side of me wants to get back to the easy Window7 habits yet, another doesn’t feel like giving in so easily. So, it’ll take time but I will be glad to post again on a regular basis as soon as I’m comfortable with it.
Meanwhile, I am posting my Multi-user dough recipe which I had posted previously under the apple cake/quick & easy/100% Natural saying then, the dough could literally change into any cake one fancies. So, I am showing you how it could be used as a dried fruit cake or muffin.

©copyright2013owpp

©copyright2013owpp

In my last post I wrote…

On this beautiful Sunday morning I would like to give you a very easy apple cake recipe with a dough that could be used for anything your imagination fancies, from sugarless jam layers, to chocolate ( carob powder for the cocoa sensitive ) or plain lemon, vanilla, rum, coffee, orange, almonds, from real or essence flavors, raisins, or raisins and dried fruits as Mango with pineapple and cranberry if you like, which will make it into a English fruit cake! Just use your creative side and innovate! Have fun while exploring, it’s the best way to have good results!

For the Gluten sensitive, there are countries where you can find specific flowers for that purpose, inquire at your local nature shop.
Enjoy and let me know!

Sugarless dried fruit cake

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©copyright2013owpp

©copyright2013owpp

Dough
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Ingredients

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1. 2 1/2 cup 80% white Spelt flour ( Same rule as before, same cup throughout. Any flower you wish if your habits and availabilities are different. It could be wholemeal too. )

2. 1 pinch of salt ( Best from a nature shop but not indispensable )

3. 2 tsp ( Dessert spoon ) Baking powder

4. 1 pinch Baking soda

5. 1/2 cup oil ( As I mentioned before, I use extra virgin olive oil and the taste goes away in the baking or cooking but, anything is good )

6. 1 cup of rice syrup ( Honey, Golden syrup or any natural sweetener )

7. 1 cup of Soda water or sparkling water if you want.

8. 62 gr Dried pineapple cubes, 62 gr Dried mango or papaya, 62 gr Dried raisins = 2.18 oz each ( you can buy them sugarless in a nature shop).

Method

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Put all the dried ingredients in your bowl, mix by hand for a second, then add the liquids and turn on your electric mixer for about 4-7 mn (if the dough is not thoroughly mixed the fruits will fall at the bottom in the oven) , the ingredients are likely to stick at the bottom of the bowl too, after, so, before pouring into the tin, mix by hand once or twice.

I’m giving you all these minor details as they tend to be annoying to have to discover on the spot 🙂

©copyright2013owpp

©copyright2013owpp

Take a baking tin ( I happened to have a 5 cm =2 inches deep, 23 cm = 9.05 inches wide and 32 cm = 12.59 long, and fitted perfectly for the recipe multiplied by 4 as I wanted 3 big loaves ) but anything will do in a loaf shape, don’t be afraid to experiment, even if it’s not perfect at the first try, what a sense of victory when it comes out just right!

Put a baking paper sheet in it, pour your batter in, slide in the oven on 150 degrees Celsius = 302 degrees Fahrenheit, for one hour to one and a quarter. I nevertheless enjoy ” checking ” on it and poke it once with a match or barbecue stainless steal stick to see. If it’s still raw it’ll stick to it. For the muffins it will take only 20-30 mn with a preheated oven. This recipe will give you one small ” loaf ” double the recipe for more.
Serve it warm or cold, it is neater to cut if it’s frozen beforehand but then it is not as fresh, whatever…they’ll bless you for it!

Let me know your opinion about the white and wholemeal version if you’ve tried them both, I am curious 🙂

(Edit)
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